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  • Тема Yellow Journalism - Английский язык

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    This term is applied to sensationalism in news presentation, the use of lurid features in publishing to attract readers and increase circulation. The phrase was first used in the 1890s to describe the tactics employed in furious competition between two New York City newspapers, the "WORLD" and the "JOURNAL".

    Before that, sensationalism in news presentation characterized the United States "penny press", such as Benjamin Day's "NEW YORK SUN". The "SUN" and the other penny newspapers promoted sensationalism to the point of outright faking. They capitalized on street sales, giving rise to the newsboy who ran about the city with news sheets, calling out headlines.

    After the Civil War, the sensationalism introduced by the penny press was revived and extended by the new reliance on advertising. By 1880 advertising met a major part of the cost of publishing a daily, and advertising rates were based on circulation. A consequence was hard-fought competition for both subscribers and street sales.

    This was the age of the great newspaper empires of Joseph Pulitzer, William Randolf Hearst, and Edward W. Scripps, who each owned several newspapers across the continent.

    In New York City the newspaper business was shaken up by the arrival of Joseph Pulitzer who is often credited with changing the course of American journalism. An immigrant from Hungary, Pulitzer bought the failing "NEW YORK WORLD" in 1883, and using colorful, sensational reporting and crusades against political corruption and social injustice, in three years raised its circulation from 15.000 to 250.000. With a series of stunts Pulitzer revitalized the established formulas of sensationalism and took one step further to exciting journalism. One of his innovations was a Sunday edition, ... остальная часть текста, формулы, таблицы, изображения скрыты

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